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Business Analysis In Finance
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Finance, Accounting and Business Analysis () follows Open Access as a publishing model. This model provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without the need to subscribe to articles published in this journal. In this model, publication costs are covered by the Institution Authors/Authors or Research Funds. The published material is freely available to all interested online readers. At the same time, authors who publish in Finance, Accounting and Business Analysis () retain the copyright of their article. Financial analysis is the process of evaluating companies, projects, budgets and other financial transactions to determine their performance and suitability. Typically, financial analysis is used to analyze whether an entity is stable, solvent, liquid or profitable enough to warrant a monetary investment.
Financial analysis is used to assess economic trends, establish financial policy, build long-term plans for business activities, and identify projects or companies for investment. This is done through the synthesis of financial numbers and data. A financial analyst carefully examines the company’s financial statements—the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow. Financial analysis can be performed in both corporate finance and investment finance settings.
One of the most common ways to analyze financial data is to calculate ratios from the data in the financial reports to compare with those of other companies or against the company’s own history.
For example, return on assets (ROA) is a common ratio used to determine how efficiently a company is using its assets and as a measure of profitability. This ratio could be calculated for several companies in the same industry and compared to each other as part of a larger analysis.
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There is no better ratio or analytical financial calculation. Most often, analysts use a combination of data to reach their conclusion.
In corporate finance, the analysis is carried out internally by the accounting department and shared with management to improve business decision making. This type of internal analysis can include ratios such as net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) to find projects that are worth executing.
Many companies extend credit to their customers. As a result, the receipt of cash from the sale may be delayed for a period of time. For companies with large credit balances, it is useful to track the days of outstanding sales (DSO), which helps the company to identify the length of time it takes to turn a credit sale into cash. The average collection period is an important aspect of a company’s overall conversion cycle.
A key area of corporate financial analysis involves extrapolating the company’s past performance, such as net income or profit margin, into an estimate of the company’s future performance. This type of historical trend analysis is beneficial for identifying seasonal trends.
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For example, retailers may see a dramatic increase in sales in the few months leading up to Christmas. This allows businesses to forecast budgets and make decisions, such as minimum inventory levels needed, based on past trends.
In investment finance, an analyst external to the company makes an analysis for investment purposes. Analysts can perform a bottom-up or bottom-up investment approach. A top-down approach first looks for macroeconomic opportunities, such as high-performing sectors, and then drills down to find the best companies in that sector. From this point, they further analyze the shares of specific companies to choose those potentially successful as investments looking at the last the fundamentals of a particular company.
A bottom-up approach, on the other hand, looks at a specific company and conducts a ratio analysis similar to those used in corporate financial analysis, looking at past performance and expected future performance as investment indicators. Fund investing forces investors to consider microeconomic factors first. These factors include a company’s overall financial health, analysis of financial statements, products and services offered, supply and demand, and other individual indicators of corporate performance over time.
Financial analysis is only useful as a comparative tool. Computing a single instance of data is usually worthless; comparing that data with previous periods, other general accounts, or financial information of competitors yields useful information.
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Fundamental analysis uses ratios gathered from data in financial reports, such as a company’s earnings per share (EPS), to determine the value of the business. Using ratio analysis in addition to a thorough review of the economic and financial situations surrounding the company, the analyst is able to arrive at an intrinsic value for the security. The ultimate goal is to arrive at a number that an investor can compare to the current price of a security to see if it is undervalued or overvalued.
Technical analysis uses statistical trends gathered from trading activities, such as moving averages (MA). Essentially, technical analysis assumes that the price of a security already reflects all publicly available information and instead focuses on statistical analysis of price movements. Technical analysis tries to understand the market sentiment behind price trends by looking for patterns and trends instead of analyzing the fundamental attributes of a security.
When reviewing a company’s financial statements, two common types of financial analysis are horizontal analysis and vertical analysis. Both use the same data set, although each analytical approach is different.
Horizontal analysis involves the selection of several years of comparable financial data. A year is chosen as the basis, often the oldest. Then, each account for each subsequent year is compared to this base, creating a percentage that easily identifies which accounts are growing (expecting revenue) and which accounts are decreasing (expecting expenses).
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Vertical analysis involves choosing a specific line item benchmark, then seeing how every other component in a financial statement compares to that benchmark. Most often, net sales are used as the benchmark. A company could compare cost of goods sold, gross profit, operating profit, or net profit as a percentage to this benchmark. Companies can track how the percentage changes over time.
In the nine-month period ending September 30, 2022, Amazon.com reported a net loss of $3 billion. This was a substantial drop from a year ago where the company reported net income of more than $19 billion.
The financial analysis shows several interesting aspects of the company’s earnings per share (shown above. On the one hand, the company’s EPS through the first three quarters was – $0.29; compared to the year before, Amazon has earned $1.88 per share. This dramatic difference was not present. Looking only at the third quarter of 2022 compared to 2021. Although EPS decreased from one year to another, the company’s EPS for each third quarter was comparable ($0.31 per share versus $0.28 per share).
Analysts can also use the above information to conduct corporate financial analysis. For example, consider Amazon’s operating profit margins below.
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From Q3 2021 to Q3 2022, the company experienced a decrease in operating margin, which allows financial analysis to reveal that the company is only earning less operating income for each dollar of sales.
Financial analysis aims to analyze whether an entity is stable, liquid, solvent, or profitable enough to warrant a monetary investment. It is used to evaluate economic trends, establish financial policies, build long-term plans for business activities, and identify projects or companies for investment.
The financial analysis can be carried out in both companies
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